Generally speaking, a business has about 5 colors they use to represent their brand, not including black or white. More complex brands will have more colors and split their color palette into tiered hierarchy deciding what colors are used more often and what colors are used less often. Colors used less often tend to be brighter colors used for accents or basic neutrals used in the background.
All colors have what’s called a tint or a shade. Shades are the darker version of the same color by adding more black and tints are the lighter version of a color by adding more white. Tints and shades are used to help make simple 5 brand colors palettes more diverse. Example: image taking a bright orange and using the lightest tint of a color and making it the background on a postcard. It would give it a much more branded feel than just using white.
*TIP: include color codes on your mood board as a cheat sheet for consistency.